Ajit Varki

Selected publications: Red Meat and Disease Risk                                                                      HOME         All Publications         Human Origins Publications         PubMed
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A = Original Research Articles               B = Invited Articles and Other Publications

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261. Samraj, A.N., Bertrand, K.A., Luben, R., Khedri, Z., Yu, H., Nguyen, D., Gregg, C.J., Diaz, S.L., Sawyer, S., Chen, X., Eliassen, H., Padler-Karavani, V., Wu, K., Khaw, K.T., Willett, W., and Varki, A. Polyclonal human antibodies against glycans bearing red meat-derived non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid are stable, reproducible, complex and vary between individuals: Total antibody levels are associated with colorectal cancer risk. PLoS One. 13:e0197464. 2018. In Press.

A251. Bergfeld, A.K., Lawrence, R., Diaz, S.L., Pearce, O.M.T., Ghaderi, D., Gagneux, P., Leakey, M.G., and Varki, A. N-glycolyl groups of nonhuman chondroitin sulfates survive in ancient fossils. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 114:E8155-E8164. 2017. UC San Diego Press Release: When Ancient Fossil DNA Isn't Available, Ancient Glycans May Help Trace Human Evolution

B179. Okerblom, JJ, and Varki, A. Biochemical, Cellular, Physiological and Pathological Consequences of Human loss of N-glycolylneuraminic Acid. (Invited Review) ChemBioChem. 18: 1155-1171. 2017.

B175. Alisson-Silva, F., Kawanishi, K., and Varki, A.: Human risk of diseases associated with red meat intake: analysis of current theories and proposed role for metabolic incorporation of a non-human sialic acid. Mol Aspects Med. 51:16-30, 2016.

B170. Varki, N.M. and Varki, A.: On the Apparent Rarity of Epithelial Cancers in Captive Chimpanzees Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015. 370:20140225.

B169. Pearce, O.M.T., Samraj, A.N., Läubli, H., A., Varki, N., Varki, A.: Reply to Mackenzie: A comparison of Neu5Gc and alpha-gal xenoantigens (Invited Letter). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 112:E1405, 2015.

A229. Samraj, A.N., Pearce, O.M.T., Läubli, H., A., Crittenden, A.N., Bergfeld, A.K., Banda, K., Gregg, C.J., Bingman A.E., Secrest, P., Diaz, S.L., Varki, N., Varki, A.: A Red Meat-Derived Glycan Promotes Inflammation and Cancer Progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 112:542-7, 2015. Link to UCSD press release

B166. Bergfeld A., Samraj, A. and Varki, A.: Metabolism of N-glycolylneuraminic Acid in Human and Non-Human Cells, and Potential Relationships to Human Disease (Invited Essay). IN Glycoscience: Biology and Medicine, edited by Endo, T., Seeberger, P.H., Hart, G.W., Wong, C.-H., and Taniguchi, N. Springer, Tokyo, pp1-8 2014.

B163. Samraj, A., Läubli, H., Varki, N., Varki, A.: Involvement of a non-human sialic acid in human cancer. Front. Oncol. 4:33, 2014.

A204. Bergfeld, A.K. Pearce, O.M., Diaz, S.L., Pham, T., and Varki, A.: Metabolism of Vertebrate Amino Sugars with N-glycolyl Groups: Elucidating the intracellular fate of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J. Biol. Chem., 287:28865-28881, 2012.

A203. Banda, K., Gregg, C.J., Chow, R., Varki, N.M., and Varki, A.: Metabolism of Vertebrate Amino Sugars with N-glycolyl Groups: Mechanisms underlying gastrointestinal Incorporation of the non-human sialic acid Xeno-autoantigen, N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J. Biol. Chem., 287:28852-28864, 2012.

B151. Ghaderi, D., Zhang, M., Hurtado-Ziola, N., and Varki, A.: Production platforms for biotherapeutic glycoproteins. Occurrence, impact, and challenges of non-human sialylation. Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev., 28:147-175, 2012.

A191. Padler-Karavani, V., Hurtado-Ziola, N., Pu, M., Yu, H., Huang, S., Muthana, S., Chokhawala, H.A., Cao, H., Secrest, P., Friedmann-Morvinski, D., Singer, O., Ghaderi, D., Verma, I.M., Liu, Y.-T., Messer, K., Chen, X., Varki, A., and Schwab, R.: Human Xeno-autoantibodies Against a Non-human Sialic Acid Serve As Novel Serum Biomarkers and Immunotherapeutics in Cancer. Cancer Res., 71:3352-3363, 2011. Link to UCSD press release

B148. Padler-Karavani, V., and Varki, A.: Potential Impact of the Non-human Sialic Acid N-glycolylneuraminic Acid on Transplant Rejection Risk (Invited Commentary). Xenotransplantation, 18:1-5, 2011.

B147. Varki, N.M., Strobert, E., Dick Jr., E.J., Benirschke, K. and Varki, A.: Biomedical Differences Between Humans and Nonhuman Hominids: Potential Roles for Uniquely Human Aspects of Sialic Acid Biology (Invited Review). Annu. Rev. Pathol., 6:365-393, 2011.

A187. Ghaderi, D., Taylor, R.E., Padler-Karavani, V., Diaz, S., and Varki, A.: Implications of the presence of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in recombinant therapeutic glycoproteins. Nat. Biotechnol., 28:863-867, 2010.

A186. Taylor, R.E., Gregg, C.J., Padler-Karavani, V., Ghaderi, D., Yu, H., Huang, S., Sorensen, R.U., Chen, X., Inostroza, J., Nizet, V., and Varki, A.: Novel mechanism for the generation of human xeno-autoantibodies against the nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J. Exp. Med., 207:1637-1646, 2010.

B143. Varki A.: Colloquium Paper: Uniquely Human Evolution of Sialic Acid Genetics and Biology. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 107 (Suppl 2): 8939-8946, 2010.

A182. Soto, P.C., Stein, L.L., Hurtado-Ziola, N., Hedrick, S.M., and Varki A.: Relative Over-reactivity of Human versus Chimpanzee Lymphocytes: Implications for the Human Diseases Associated with Immune Activation. J. Immunol., 184:4185-4195, 2010.

A180. Pham, T.*, Gregg, C.J.*, Karp, F., Chow, R., Padler-Karavani, V., Cao, H., Chen, X., V., Witztum, J.L., Varki, N.M. and Varki, A.: Evidence for a Novel Human-specific Xeno-Auto-Antibody Response Against Vascular Endothelium. Blood, 114:5225-5235, 2009. * = The contributions of the first two authors are equal.

A172. Diaz, S.L., Padler-Karavani, V., Ghaderi, D., Hurtado-Ziola, N., Yu, H., Chen, X.,Brinkman-Van der Linden, E.C.M., Varki, A., and Varki, N.M.: Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Non-Human Sialic Acid N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid In Human Tissues and Biotherapeutic Products. PLoS ONE, 4:e4241, 2009.

A170. Hedlund, M., Padler-Karavani, V., Varki, N.M., and Varki, A.: Evidence for a Human-Specific Mechanism for Diet and Antibody-Mediated Inflammation in Carcinoma Progression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 105:18936-18941, 2008. PNAS Online.

A168. Byres, E., Paton, A.W., Paton, J.C., Löfling, J.C., Smith, D.F., Wilce, M.C., Talbot, U.M., Chong, D.C., Yu, H., Huang, S., Chen, X., Varki, N.M., Varki, A.#, Rossjohn, J. #, and Beddoe, T. # : Incorporation of a non-human glycan mediates human susceptibility to a bacterial toxin. Nature, 456:648-652, 2008. # = corresponding authors.

A166. Padler-Karavani, V., Yu, H., Cao, H., Chokhawala, H., Karp, F., Varki, N., Chen, X., and Varki, A.: Diversity in Specificity, Abundance and Composition of Anti-Neu5Gc Antibodies in Normal Humans: Potential Implications for Disease. Glycobiology, 18:818-830, 2008.

A160. Hedlund, M., Tangvoranuntakul, P., Takematsu, H., Long, J.M., Housley, G.D., Kozutsumi, Y., Suzuki, A., Wynshaw-Boris, A., Ryan, A.F., Gallo, R.L., Varki, N. and Varki, A.: N-glycolylneuraminic Acid Deficiency in Mice: Implications for Human Biology and Evolution. Mol. Cell. Biol., 27:4340-4346, 2007.

B105. Varki, A.: Glycan-based Interactions Involving Vertebrate Sialic Acid-Recognizing Proteins (Invited Review). Nature, 446:1023-1029, 2007.

A143. Nguyen, D.H., Tangvoranuntakul, P., Varki, A.: Effects of natural human antibodies against a non-human sialic acid that metabolically incorporates into activated and malignant immune cells. J. Immunol. 175:228-236, 2005.

A141. Bardor, M., Nguyen, D., Diaz, S., Varki, A.: Mechanism of Uptake and Incorporation of the Non-Human Sialic Acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid into Human Cells. J. Biol. Chem, 280:4228-4237, 2005.

A140. Martin, M.J., Moutri, A., Gage, F., Varki, A.: Human Embryonic Stem Cells Express an Immunogenic Non-Human Sialic Acid. Nat. Med. 11:228-232, 2005. Link to UCSD press release

A133. Tangvoranuntakul, P., Gagneux, P., Diaz, S., Bardor, M., Varki, N.M., Varki, A., and Muchmore, E.: Human Uptake and Incorporation of an Immunogenic Non-human Dietary Sialic Acid. Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 100:12045-12050, 2003. Supplementary Material, Link to UCSD press release

A97. Chou, H-¬H., Takematsu, H., Diaz, S., Iber, J., Nickerson, E., Wright, K.L., Muchmore, E.A., Nelson, D.L., Warren, S.T. and Varki, A.: A mutation in human CMP-sialic acid hydroxylase occurred after the Homo-Pan divergence. Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95:11751-11756, 1998. Link to UCSD press release

A96. Muchmore, E.A., Diaz, S. and Varki, A.: A structural difference between the cell surfaces of humans and the great apes. Amer. J. Physical Anthropology 107:187-198, 1998.